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Construction and Stone Masonry 

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Palm Fibre Rope

 

Date:  1503 – 1473 BC (Reign of Hatshepsut)

Place:  Deir el-Bahari

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

 

Made from palm fibre, used to haul stone and timber at construction sites.

 

Rahab used a rope to let the spies escape from Jericho: ‘ So she let them down by a rope through the window, for the house she lived in was part of the city wall.’  (Joshua 2:15)

Basket for moving Construction Rubble

 

Date: 1503 – 1473 (Reign of Hatshepsut)

Place:  Deir el-Bahari

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

 

Made from palm fibre.

Scale Model of a  Rocker

 

Date: 1503 – 1473 (Reign of Hatshepsut)

Place:  Deir el-Bahari

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

 

Inscribed with the name of Hatshepsut. These rockers were thought to have been used for moving or positioning large stone blocks.

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Adze

 

Date: 1324 – 1321 BC (Reign of Aye, 18th Dynasty)

Place: Luzor, Medinet Habu

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

 

Made of wood, copper alloy and leather.

 

 

 

Selection of Miniature Tools

 

Date: 1479 – 1425 BC (Reign of Thuthmoses III)

Place: Deir el-Bahari

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

 

This selection of miniature tools were placed in a recess in the foundations of the temple at Deir el-Bahari (see also brick mould above)

 

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Plasterers Trowel

 

Date: Unknown

Place: Egypt

 

Photographed at the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London, England.

Wooden Rake

 

Date: Unknown

Place: Egypt

 

Photographed at the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London, England.

Lashing for an Axe

 

Date: unknown

Place: Egypt

 

Photographed at the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London, England.

Halfa Grass Rope

 

Date: 1010 – 890 BC

Place: Tomb of Sety I in the Valley of the Kings.

 

Photographed at the British Museum, London, England. 

Sculptors Tools

 

Wooden Mallet

Date: 1185 – 1070 BC

Place: Thebes, Egypt

 

Bronze Chisel

Date: 1325 – 1321 BC (Reign of Aye)

Place: Mortuary Temple of Aye, Luxor

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Mason’s Mallet

 

Date: 1300 BC

Place: Deir el-Bahari, Thebes, Egypt

 

Photographed at the British Museum, London, England. 

 

1 Kings 6:7 describes the building of Solomon’s Temple:

 

In building the temple, only blocks dressed at the quarry were used, and no hammer, chisel or any other iron tool was heard at the temple site while it was being built. (1 Kings 6:7)

Axe Head

 

Date: unknown

Place: Tell Asmar

 

Photographed at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Whetstone in the Form of a Stag

 

Date: Early first millennium BC

Place: Caucasus Region

 

Photographed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA.

 

Bronze.

Mason’s Tools

 

Stylis (left) for marking the surface

Date: 1400 – 1200 BC.

Place: Ialyssos, Rhodes, Greece

 

Dividers (centre)

Date: 1st century AD

Place: probably Roman

 

Square (right)

Date: 1st – 3rd century AD

Place: Ephesus [Turkey]

 

Photographed at the British Museum, London, England. 

 

Isaiah 44:13 describes the futile construction of a false god: The carpenter measures with a line and makes an outline with a marker; he roughs it out with chisels  and marks it with compasses. He shapes it in human form, human form in all its glory, that it may dwell in a shrine. (Isaiah 44:13)

Carpenter’s House

(Reproduction)

 

Photographed at Nazareth Village, Nazareth, Israel.

 

The carpenter's house shows the type of tools and implements in use at the time of Jesus.

 

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Relief showing Chisel and Mallet

 

Date: 2nd century AD

Place: Roman

 

Photographed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, USA.

 

Made from marble

 

One of the most famous acts of stone work in the Bible was when Moses was commanded by God to chisel the stones for the ten commandments:

 

“Chisel out two stone tablets like the first ones, and I will write on them the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke. (Exodus 34:1)

Bronze Tools

 

Date: Roman Imperial period

Place: Roman (place unknown)

 

Bronze folding foot rule (top left)

Bronze set square (bottom left)

Pair of bronze proportional compasses (top and bottom right)

 

 

Photographed at the British Museum, London, England. 

Mason’s Tool

(replica)

 

Photographed at Nazareth Village, Nazareth, Israel.

Mason’s Tools

 

Date: 1st – 3rd century AD

Place: Top (iron) probably from Linthes [France]

Bottom (bronze) probably from Florence, Italy

 

Photographed at the British Museum, London, England. 

 

This pick hammers have blunt and sharp ends for knocking and cutting stone to shape.

Wood Plane

 

Date ca. 300 AD.

Place: Uttfeld, Germany (Both)

 

Photographed at the Landesmuseum, Trier, Germany.

 

Made from wood and iron (replicas of how they would  have originally looked can be seen on the extra images in the slider).

 

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Plumb Bob

 

Details unknown

 

Photographed at the Limesmuseum, Aalen, Germany.

 

So this is what the Sovereign Lord says:

 

“See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who relies on it will never be stricken with panic.  I will make justice the measuring line and righteousness the plumb line. (Isaiah 28:16-17)

Bronze Plumb Bob

 

Date: Roman Imperial period

Place: Unknown

 

Photographed at the British Museum, London, England. 

 

Inscribed with BASSI meaning ‘belonging to Bassus’

 

This is what he showed me: The Lord was standing by a wall that had been built true to plumb, with a plumb line in his hand. the Lord asked me, “What do you see, Amos?” “A plumb line,” I replied.

Then the Lord said, “Look, I am setting a plumb line among my people Israel; I will spare them no longer. (Amos 7:7-8)