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Travel and Trade - Other

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Copper Ingot


Date: 2nd millennium BC.

Place:  Under the sea between Turkey and Cypress


Photographed at the Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany.


25.67 kg. Typical oxhide shape


Carrying Chair of Queen Hetepheres

(replica, original in Cairo museum)


Date: 2551 – 2528 BC (reign of Khufu)

Place: Giza, Egypt


Photographed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts  USA.


God hieroglyph inlays discovered during the excavations of a secret tomb at Giza revealed to the excavators the identity of the chair’s owner. The hieroglyphs read as follows:

“Mother of the king of upper and lower Egypt, follower of Horus, director of the ruler, the gracious one, whose every word is done for her, daughter of the god’s body, Hetepheres.”


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Model of Mule Carrying Cheese


Date: 3rd or 2nd century BC

Place: possibly Canosa [Southern Italy]


Photographed at the British Museum, London, England.


This terracotta model shows a mule carrying two trays of cheeses.


When David became king over Israel, people came from all over the country with food:

Also, their neighbors from as far away as Issachar, Zebulun and Naphtali came bringing food on donkeys, camels, mules and oxen. There were plentiful supplies of flour, fig cakes, raisin cakes, wine, olive oil, cattle and sheep, for there was joy in Israel. (1 Chronicles 12: 40).


Bronze Model  of a Donkey with Paniers


Date: Roman period

Place: Unknown


Photographed at the British Museum, London, England.


Model of Horse Carrying Amphora


Date: 500 BC

Place: Probably made in Rhodes


Photographed at the British Museum, London, England.

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